mardi 31 mars 2015

Saint ACACE (ACACIUS) AGATHANGELOS d'ANTIOCHE, évêque et confesseur

Saint Acace Agathangelos

Évêque d’Antioche de Pisidie

Fête le 31 mars

Églises d’Orient

† v. 251


Autres graphies : Acace, Achatius ou Acacius

Il fut probablement évêque d’Antioche, en Pisidie, ou de Mélitène, en Arménie. Nous possédons le compte rendu de son interrogatoire par le préfet Marcien, interrogatoire au cours duquel il argumenta si brillamment contre l’idolâtrie que l’empereur Dèce lui pardonna. Les Grecs le surnommèrent Agathange (bon ange) et Thaumaturge (faiseur de miracles). Il est très vénéré en Orient. Ses « acta » semblent authentiques. Il se peut qu’Acacius ou Achatius ait été évêque d’Antioche ou de Mélitène, mais il se peut également qu’il n’ait pas été évêque du tout. Éminent dans les cercles chrétiens d’Antioche, il est sommé de paraître devant le fonctionnaire romain local, Marcien. Acace refuse de sacrifier aux dieux païens, et bien qu’il ne fournisse pas les noms de ses camarades chrétiens, il est envoyé en prison. Apparemment, quand l’empereur Dèce reçoit le rapport de son procès, il est tellement impressionné par les deux hommes qu’il promeut Marcien et pardonne à Acacius. Bien que désigné comme martyr, il n’y a pas de preuve qu’il meurt pour la foi. Trois autres martyrs des premiers siècles s’appellent aussi Acace.

Saint Acace d'Antioche

Évêque ( 250)

Evêque d'Antioche, il fut arrêté pendant la persécution de l'empereur Dèce. Nous avons le compte-rendu de son interrogatoire où Acace réfute avec une verve extraordinaire l'interrogatoire du préfet Marcien qui le laisse parler puis l'acquitte. Les « acta » de son interrogatoire semblent authentiques par leur simplicité.

SOURCE : http://nominis.cef.fr/contenus/saint/893/Saint-Acace-d-Antioche.html

Acacius Agathangelos B (AC)

(also known as Achatius)


Died c. 251.


"We venerate our God because He made us; we did not make Him. He as our Master loves us, for He is also our Father. Of His goodness He has rescued us from everlasting death." --Saint Acacius.

Saint Acacius, bishop of Antioch, Phrygia, led a devout life and was much revered for his charity and zeal by his flock who nicknamed him 'Agathangelus,' which means 'good angel,' and 'Thaumaturgus,' or the 'wonder-worker.' During the persecution of Christians under the Emperor Decius, not a single Christian in his diocese is said to have denied his faith.

Around 251, Decius's representative in Antioch, Martian, summoned the bishop for cross-examination. Acacius appeared and began by insisting that his flock was entirely faithful to the emperor. Martian responded that the saint should prove this by making sacrifice to the emperor as a god. This the bishop adamantly refused to do.

The following transcript is from the public record of this interrogation:

Martian: "As you have the happiness to live under the Roman laws, you are bound to love and honor our princes, who are our protectors."

Acacius: "Of all the subjects of the empire, none love and honor the emperor more than the Christians. We pray without intermission for his person, and that it may please God to grant him long life, prosperity, success, and all benedictions; that he may be endowed by Him with the spirit of justice and wisdom to govern his people; that his reign be auspicious, and prosperous, blessed with joy, peace, and plenty, throughout all the provinces that obey him."

Martian: "All this I commend; but that the emperor may be the better convinced of your submission and fidelity, come now and offer him a sacrifice with me."

Acacius: "I have already told you that I pray to the great and true God for the emperor; but he ought not to require a sacrifice from us, nor is there any due to him or to any man whatsoever."

Martian: "Tell us what God you adore, that we may also pay Him our offerings and homages."

Acacius: "I wish from my heart you did know Him."

Instead of instantly sentencing Acacius to death, Martian continued to question him. They discussed the nature of angels. They spoke about the myths of the Greeks and the Romans. They philosophized together about the nature of God:

Martian: "Tell me His Name."

Acacius: "He is called the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob."

Martian: "Are these the names of gods?"

Acacius: "By no means, but of men to whom the true God spoke; He is the only God, and He alone is to be adored, feared, and loved."

Martian: "What is this God?"

Acacius: "He is the most high Adonai, who is seated above the cherubim and seraphim."

Martian: "What is a seraph?"

Acacius: "A ministering spirit of the most high God, and one of the principal lords of the heavenly court."

Martian: "What chimeras are these? Lay aside these whims of invisible beings, and adore such gods as you can see."

Acacius: "Tell me who are those gods to whom you would have me sacrifice?"

Martian: "Apollo, the savior of men, who preserves us from pestilence and famine, who enlightens, preserves, and governs the universe."

Acacius: "Do you mean that wretch that could not preserve his own life: who, being in love with a young woman (Daphne), ran about distracted in pursuit of her, not knowing that he was never to possess the object of his desires? It is therefore evident that he could not foresee things to come, since he was in the dark as to his own fate, and as clear that he could be no god, who was thus cheated by a creature. All know likewise that he had a base passion for Hyacinth, a beautiful boy, and was so awkward as to break the head of that minion, the fond object of his criminal passion, with a quail.

"Is not he also that god who, with Neptune, turned mason, hired himself to a king (Laamedon of Troy), and built the walls of a city? Would you oblige me to sacrifice to such a divinity, or to Esculapius, thunderstruck by Jupiter? or to Venus, whose life was infamous, and to a hundred such monsters, to whom you offer sacrifice? No, though my life itself depended on it, ought I to pay divine honors to those whom I should blush to imitate, and of whom I can entertain no other sentiments than those of contempt and execration? You adore gods, the imitators of whom you yourselves would punish."

Martian: "It is usual for you Christians to raise several calumnies against our gods; for which reason I command you to come now with me to a banquet in honor of Jupiter and Juno, and acknowledge and perform what is due to their majesty."

Acacius: "How can I sacrifice to a man whose sepulcher is unquestionably in Crete? What! Is he risen again?"

Martian: "You must either sacrifice or die."

Acacius: "Finis is the custom of the Dalmatian robbers; when they have taken a passenger in a narrow way, they leave him no other choice but to surrender his money or his life. But, for my part, I declare to you that I fear nothing that you can do to me. The laws punish adulterers, thieves, and murderers. Were I guilty of any of those things, I should be the first man to condemn myself. But if my whole crime be the adoring of the true God, and I am on this account to be put to death, it is no longer a law but an injustice."

Martian: "I have no order to judge but to counsel you to obey. If you refuse, I know how to force you to a compliance."

Acacius: "I have a law which I will obey: this commands me not to renounce my God. If you think yourself bound to execute the orders of a man who in a little while must leave the world, and his body become the food of worms, much more strictly am I bound to obey the omnipotent God, Who is infinite and eternal, and Who hath declared, `Whoever shall deny Me before men, him will I deny before My Father.'"

Martian: "You now mention the error of your sect which I have long desired to be informed of: you say then that God hath a son?"

Acacius: "Doubtless He hath one."

Martian: "Who is this son of God?"

Acacius: "The Word of truth and grace."

Martian: "Is that His name?"

Acacius: "You did not ask me His name, but what He is."

Martian: "What then is His name?"

Acacius: "Jesus Christ."

Martian asked by what woman God had this son, he replied, that the divine generation of the Word is of a different nature from human generation, and proved it from the language the royal prophet uses of in Psalm 44.

Martian: "Is God then corporeal?"

Acacius: "He is known only to Himself. We cannot describe Him; He is invisible to us in this mortal state, but we are sufficiently acquainted with His perfections to confess and adore Him."

Martian: "If God hath no body, how can He have a heart or mind?"

Acacius: "Wisdom hath no dependence or connection with an organized body. What does having a body have to do with understanding?"

He then pressed him to sacrifice as did some of the heretical Montanists.

Acacius: "It is not me these people obey, but God. Let them hear me when I advise them to what is right; or let them despise me, if I offer them the contrary and endeavor to pervert them."

Martian then asked the saint to provide him with the names of other Christians. The bishop would give him only two names: his own, Acacius, and his nickname, Agathangelus.

Martian: "Give me all their names."

Acacius: "They are written in heaven, in God's invisible registers."

Martian: "Where are the magicians, your companions, and the teachers of this cunningly devised error [the priests?]?"

Acacius: "No one in the world abhors magic more than we Christians."

Martian: "Magic is the new religion which you introduce."

Acacius: "We destroy those gods whom you fear, though you made them yourselves. We, on the contrary, fear not him whom we have made with our hands, but Him who created us, and Who is the Lord and Master of all nature; Who loved us as our good Father, and redeemed us from death and hell as the careful and affectionate shepherd of our souls."

Martian: "Give the names I require, if you would avoid the torture."

Acacius: "I am before the tribunal, and do you ask me my name, and, not satisfied with that, you must also know those of the other ministers? Do you hope to conquer many; you, whom I alone am able thus to confound? If you desire to know our names, mine is Acacius. If you would know more, they call me Agathangelus, and my two companions are Piso, bishop of the Trojans, and Menander, a priest. Do now what you please."

Martian: "You shall remain in prison till the emperor is acquainted with what has passed on this subject, and sends his orders concerning you."

The emperor's representative was so impressed by Acacius that he sent a transcript of the whole interview to Decius himself. Decius smiled when he read it, promoted Martian to a higher post, and pardoned Bishop Acacius.

The acta of Acacius seem to be genuine. He is held in great veneration in the East (Attwater2, Benedictines, Bentley, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth). 



March 31

St. Acacius, or Achates, Bishop of Antioch, in Asia Minor, Confessor

ST. ACACIUS was bishop of Antioch, probably the town of that name in Phrygia, where the Marcionites were numerous. He was surnamed Agath-angel, or Good-angel, and extremely respected by the people for his sanctity. It was owing to his zeal that not one of his flock renounced Christ, by sacrificing to idols during the persecution of Decius, a weakness which several of the Marcionite heretics had betrayed. Our saint himself made a glorious confession of his faith; of which the following relation, transcribed from the public register, is a voucher:

Martian, a man of consular dignity, arriving at Antioch, a small town of his government, ordered the bishop to be brought before him. His name was Acacius, and he was styled the buckler and refuge of that country for his universal charity and episcopal zeal. Martian said to him: “As you have the happiness to live under the Roman laws, you are bound to love and honour our princes, who are our protectors.” Acacius answered: “Of all the subjects of the empire, none love and honour the emperor more than the Christians. We pray without intermission for his person, and that it may please God to grant him long life, prosperity, success, and all benedictions; that he may be endowed by him with the spirit of justice and wisdom to govern his people, that his reign be auspicious, and prosperous, blessed with joy, peace, and plenty throughout all the provinces that obey him.” MARTIAN. “All this I commend; but that the emperor may be the better convinced of your submission and fidelity, come now and offer him a sacrifice with me.” ACACIUS. “I have already told you, that I pray to the great and true God for the emperor; but he ought not to require a sacrifice from us, nor is there any due to him or to any man whatsoever.” MARTIAN. “Tell us what God you adore, that we may also pay him our offerings and homages?” ACACIUS. “I wish from my heart you did but know him to your advantage.” MARTIAN. “Tell me his name.” ACACIUS. “He is called the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob.” MARTIAN. “Are these the names of gods?” ACACIUS. “By no means, but of men to whom the true God spoke; he is the only God, and he alone is to be adored, feared, and loved.” MARTIAN. “What is this God?” ACACIUS. “He is the most high Adonia, who is seated above the cherubim and seraphim.” MARTIAN. “What is a seraph?” ACACIUS. “A ministering spirit of the most high God, and one of the principal lords of the heavenly court.” MARTIAN. “What chimeras are these? Lay aside these whims of invisible beings, and adore such gods as you can see.” ACACIUS. “Tell me who are those gods to whom you would have me sacrifice?” MARTIAN. “Apollo, the saviour of men, who preserves us from pestilence and famine, who enlightens, preserves, and governs the universe.” ACACIUS. “Do you mean that wretch that could not preserve his own life: who, being in love with a young woman, (Daphne,) ran about distracted in pursuit of her, not knowing that he was never to possess the object of his desires. It is therefore evident that he could not foresee things to come, since he was in the dark as to his own fate: and as clear that he could be no god, who was thus cheated by a creature. All know likewise that he had a base passion for Hyacinth, a beautiful boy, and was so awkward as to break the head of that minion, the fond object of his criminal passion, with a quoit. Is not he also that god who, with Neptune, turned mason, hired himself to a king, (Laomedon of Troy,) and built the walls of a city? Would you oblige me to sacrifice to such a divinity, or to Esculapius, thunderstruck by Jupiter? or to Venus, whose life was infamous, and to a hundred such monsters to whom you offer sacrifice? No, though my life itself depended on it, ought I to pay divine honours to those whom I should blush to imitate, and of whom I can entertain no other sentiments than those of contempt and execration? You adore Gods, the imitators of whom you yourselves would punish.” MARTIAN. “It is usual for you Christians to raise several calumnies against our gods; for which reason I command you to come now with me to a banquet in honour of Jupiter and Juno, and acknowledge and perform what is due to their majesty.” ACACIUS. “How can I sacrifice to a man whose sepulchre is unquestionably in Crete? What! is he risen again?” MARTIAN. “You must either sacrifice or die.” ACACIUS. “This is the custom of the Dalmatian robbers; when they have taken a passenger in a narrow way, they leave him no other choice but to surrender his money or his life. But, for my part, I declare to you that I fear nothing that you can do to me. The laws punish adulterers, thieves, and murderers. Were I guilty of any of those things, I should be the first man to condemn myself. But if my whole crime be the adoring of the true God, and I am on this account to be put to death, it is no longer a law but an injustice.” MARTIAN. “I have no order to judge but to counsel you to obey. If you refuse, I know how to force you to a compliance.” ACACIUS. “I have a law which I will obey: this commands me not to renounce my God. If you think yourself bound to execute the orders of a man who in a little time hence must leave the world, and his body become the food of worms, much more strictly am I bound to obey the omnipotent God, who is infinite and eternal, and who hath declared, Whoever shall deny me before men, him will I deny before my Father,” MARTIAN. “You now mention the error of your sect which I have long desired to be informed of: you say then that God hath a son?” ACACIUS. “Doubtless he hath one.” MARTIAN. “Who is this son of God?” ACACIUS. “The Word of truth and grace.” MARTIAN. “Is that his name?” ACACIUS. “You did not ask me his name but what he is.” MARTIAN. “What then is his name?” ACACIUS. “Jesus Christ.” Martian having inquired of the saint by what woman God had his son, he replied, that the divine generation of the Word is of a different nature from human generation, and proved it from the language the royal prophet makes use of in the forty-fourth psalm. MARTIAN. “Is God then corporeal?” ACACIUS. “He is known only to himself. We cannot describe him; he is invisible to us in this mortal state, but we are sufficiently acquainted with his perfections to confess and adore him.” MARTIAN. “If God had no body, how can he have a heart or mind?” ACACIUS. “Wisdom hath no dependence or necessary connexion with an organized body. What hath body to do with understanding?” He then pressed him to sacrifice from the example of the Cataphrygians, or Montanists, and engage all under his care to do the same. Acacius replied: “It is not me these people obey but God. Let them hear me when I advise them to what is right; but let them despise me, if I offer them the contrary and endeavour to pervert them.” MARTIAN. “Give me all their names.” ACACIUS. “They are written in heaven, in God’s invisible registers.” MARTIAN. “Where are the magicians, your companions, and the teachers of this cunningly devised error?” by which he probably meant the priests. ACACIUS. “No one in the world abhors magic more than we Christians.” MARTIAN. “Magic is the new religion which you introduce.” ACACIUS. “We destroy those gods whom you fear though you made them yourselves. We, on the contrary, fear not him whom we have made with our hands, but him who created us, and who is the Lord and Master of all nature; who loved us as our good father, and redeemed us from death and hell as the careful and affectionate shepherd of our souls.” MARTIAN. “Give the names I require, if you would avoid the torture.” ACACIUS. “I am before the tribunal, and do you ask me my name, and, not satisfied with that, you must also know those of the other ministers? Do you hope to conquer many; you, whom I alone am able thus to confound. If you desire to know our names, mine is Acacius. If you would know more, they call me Agathangelus, and my two companions are Piso, bishop of the Trojans, and Menander, a priest. Do now what you please.” MARTIAN. “You shall remain in prison, till the emperor is acquainted with what has passed on this subject, and sends his orders concerning you.”

The emperor Decius having read the interrogatory, recompensed Martian by making him governor of Pamphilia, but admired so much the prudence and constancy of Acacius, that he ordered him to be discharged, and suffered him to profess the Christian religion.

This his glorious confession is dated on the 29th of March, and happened under Decius in 250, or 251. How long Saint Acacius survived does not appear. The Greeks, Egyptians, and other oriental Churches, honour his name on the 31st of March; though his name occurs not in the Roman Martyrology. See his authentic acts in Ruinart, p. 152. Tillemont. t. 2. p. 357. Fleury, t. 2. Ceillier, t. 3. p. 560.


Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73).  Volume III: March. The Lives of the Saints.  1866.

Bienheureux CHRISTOPHER ROBINSON, prêtre et martyr

Bienheureux Christophe Robinson, prêtre et martyr

Né vers 1565 à Woodsite en Angleterre, il fit ses études de théologie à Douai et à Reims. Ordonné prêtre le 24 février 1592, il retourne en Angleterre où il est témoin du martyr de saint John Boste dont il écrit le récit. Arrêté le 4 mars 1597, martyrisé, la corde aurait cassé deux fois avant de le pendre à la troisième fois, en 1597.

Bienheureux Christophe Robinson

prêtre et martyr en Angleterre ( 1597)

Né vers 1565 à Woodsite en Angleterre, il fit ses études de théologie à Douai et à Reims. Ordonné prêtre le 24 février 1592, il retourne en Angleterre où il est témoin du martyre de saint John Boste dont il écrit le récit. Arrêté le 4 mars 1597, martyrisé, la corde aurait cassé deux fois avant de le pendre à la troisième fois. Il a été béatifié le 22 novembre 1987 par Jean-Paul II.

Commémoraison du bienheureux Christophe Robinson, prêtre et martyr, qui fut témoin du martyre de saint Jean Boste, et fut lui-même, sous la reine Élisabeth Ière, pour la seule cause de son sacerdoce, mené au gibet, un jour non précisé de 1597.


Martyrologe romain


Ven. Christopher Robinson

Born at Woodside, near Westward, Cumberland, date unknown; executed at Carlisle, 19 Aug., 1598. He was admitted to the English College at Reims in 1589, and was ordained priest and sent on the mission in 1592. Two years later he was a witness of the condemnation and execution of the venerable martyr John Boste at Durham, and wrote a very graphic account of this, which has been printed from a seventeenth-century transcript in the first volume of the "Catholic Record Society's Publications" (London, 1905), pp. 85-92. His labours seem to have been mainly in Cumberland and Westmoreland; but nothing is known about them. Eventually he was arrested and imprisoned at Carlisle, where Bishop Robinson, who may have been a relative, did his best to persuade him to save his life by conforming, under 27 Eliz., c. 2, for being a priest and coming into the realm, suffered the last penalty with such cheerful constancy that his death was the occasion of many conversions.

Wainewright, John. "Ven. Christopher Robinson." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 30 Mar. 2015 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13099b.htm>.


Blessed Christopher Robinson, the Carlisle Martyr

Blessed Christopher Robinson was executed at Carlisle on August 19, 1598. The model above reflects the circumstances of his martyrdom, as the rope on which he was to be hung kept breaking! According to this website

Christopher Robinson is on all the ancient lists of those martyred during the Reformation, but his life is still little known. Nevertheless, his memory has never been effaced in Cumberland, of which he is the only Catholic martyr. His death evidently made a deep impression especially in his native Carlisle.

Christopher Robinson was probably born at Woodside, near Carlisle, between 1565 and 1570. He was admitted as a student with six others on 17 August 1590 at Douai as a student. This college had been founded on 29 September 1568 by William Allen, a former Oxford Professor and later Cardinal. The first four priests were sent to England in 1574, and in the next ten years just over a hundred left the College ordained for the English Mission. From 1568 to 1594 the College was re-settled beside the university of Rheims and it was during this period that Christopher Robinson was a student of the College.

He was at once entered for theological studies and was given the tonsure and first Minor Orders on 18 August 1590. Such was the urgent need for priests that the College had been granted a general dispensation to shorten the usual six-year course of preparation for the priesthood. Christopher Robinson was given the remaining Minor Orders, together with the subdiaconate and diaconate, on the last three days of March 1591. On 24 February he was ordained to the priesthood by Cardinal Philip Sega in his private chapel at Rheims. He departed for England on 1 September 1592.

Cumberland and probably part of Westmorland was to be his field of labour. In a list of 1596 he is described by name as ‘dwelling for the most part at Woodside nigh Carlisle in Cumberland’. The only house known with certainty to have been visited and used by him was Johnby Hall, the home of the Musgrave family, about six miles from Penrith, near Greystoke Castle.

He would surely have known John Boste, a native of Dufton, near Appleby, who was the most hunted priest in the northern counties. He was eventually captured near Brancepeth, County Durham, on 13 September 1593. Christopher Robinson heard of his capture and, feeling sure no one would recognise him, rode over to attend his trial. Afterwards he wrote a detailed account of the trial and death of John Boste. This is a unique, first hand evidence of a martyrdom, hardly paralleled elsewhere.

He himself was arrested three and a half years later on 4 March 1597. A letter by Fr. Henry Garnett SJ dated 7 April 1597 states:

‘One Robinson, a seminary priest, was lately in a purchased gaol-delivery hanged at Carlisle. The rope broke twice and the third time he rebuked the sheriff for cruelty saying that, although he meant no way to yield but was glad of the combat, yet flesh and blood were weak, and therefore he showed little humanity to torment a man for so long. And when they took order to put two ropes, then, said he, by this means I shall be longer a-dying, but it is no matter, I am willing to suffer all.’ 

Although the indictment upon which Christopher Robinson suffered is no longer to be found, there is abundant evidence that the cause of his death was his priesthood.

There is also much evidence that his memory as a martyr has been persistently held in honour in Carlisle, where Christopher Robinson’s name is not only remembered but also invoked as a true martyr.

He was declared Blessed by Pope John Paul II in 1987. Lancaster Cathedral celebrates his martyrdom on the Feast of the Lancaster Martyrs, August 7.


Blessed Christopher Robinson

Profile

Studied in Douai and Rheims, France beginning in 1590. Ordained 24 February 1592. Returned to England in September 1592 to covertly minister to oppressed Catholics in the areas of Cumberland and Westmoreland. He witnessed the martyrdom of Saint John Boste, and published an account of it. Arrested 4 March 1597 for the crime of priesthood. Martyred for his crime; the hanging rope broke twice, so they used two ropes on the third, successful attempt. One of the Martyrs of England, Scotland, and Wales.



Saint GUY de POMPOSA, abbé

Saint Guy de Pomposa, abbé

Natif de Ravenne, il reçut la tonsure à Rome et alla vivre sur les rives du Pô, avec un ermite nommé Martin. Il fut élu par la suite abbé de Saint-Sévère puis du monastère de Pomposa, près de Ferrare, en Émilie-Romagne, et y mena une vie toute d’austérité. L’abbaye de Pomposa, fondée aux VIe-VIIe siècle par les bénédictins, sur ce qui était à l’époque une île, devint sous sa conduite un des plus importants monastères de l’Italie du Nord. Il mourut en 1046. L’abbaye connut un grand rayonnement surtout au Xe et au XIIe siècle, c’est là notamment que le moine Guy d’Arezzo (992-1050) mit au point la notation musicale avec l’acrostiche de l’hymne de Paul Diacre à saint Jean Baptiste : « Ut queant laxis / Resonare fibris / Mira gestorum / Famuli tuorum / Solve poluuti / Labii reatum / Sancte Iohannes ».

Saint Guy de Pomposa

Moine puis abbé à Ravenne ( 1046)

Né aux environs de Ravenne, il vécut d'abord sous la direction d'un ermite qui l'envoya à l'abbaye de Pomposa dont il devint l'abbé. Sa sainteté lui attira de nombreux disciples et fit de son monastère l'un des plus importants de l'Italie du Nord.

À Borgo San Domnino, dans la région de Parme en Émilie, l’an 1046, le trépas de saint Guy, abbé du monastère de Pompose, qui accueillit de nombreux disciples, reconstruisit les bâtiments, veilla au plus haut point à la contemplation et au culte divin, et voulut être tout entier à Dieu seul dans la retraite.


Martyrologe romain



Guy of Pomposa, OSB Abbot M (AC)
(also known as Guido, Guion, Wido, Witen, Wit)

Born near Ravenna, Italy; died 1046. San Guido's parents were proud of their son. He was extremely careful with his appearance and dress in order to please them, until the day he realized that it was a form of vanity. On the feast of Saint Apollinaris, the first bishop of Ravenna, Guy went into town, stripped off his finery, and traded them for the rags of the poor. His horrified parents then watched as he left on a pilgrimage to Rome thus dressed.


In Rome, he was tonsured and placed himself under the direction of a hermit, named Martin, who lived on an island in the Po River. After three years, Martin sent him to the monastery of Pomposa (near Ferrara), which was under Martin's direction together with that of Ferrara, to learn the monastic life in a large community. Thus, Guy began monastic life and became a Benedictine monk at the abbey of Saint Severus.

Later Guy was nominated by Martin and was confirmed by vote of the community as abbot of Ravenna, then of Pomposa near Ferrara. He loved sacred learning and, at his request, Saint Peter Damian delivered lectures on the Scriptures to his monks for two years. Saint Peter Damian later dedicated his book, De perfectione monachorum, to the holy abbot. During his forty years as abbot, Guy's reputation drew so many others to religious life, including his own father and brother, that the community doubled in size and another monastery had to be built to accommodate them all. Eventually, he delegated the administrative aspects of his office in order to concentrate on the spiritual, especially the direction of souls.

Three times annually he made a retreat in a hermitage three-miles from Ferrara, where he lived in silence, abstinence, fasting, and prayer. His devotions and austerities were heightened during Lent. Although he treated his own body severely, he was extraordinarily tender with his monks, who became devoted to him.

Towards the end of his life, Guy was fiercely, though unjustly, persecuted by Archbishop Heribert of Ravenna and retired again into solitude. His peace was broken, however, by an summons to Piacenza from Emperor Henry III, who had come to Italy and wished to consult the holy man whose reputation had reached the king's ears. Guy took leave of his brothers, saying that he would not see them again. He became ill at Borgo San Donnino (near Parma) and died within days. After his death, Parma and Pomposa vied for custody of his relics. The emperor settled the dispute by taking his remains to the Church of Saint John the Evangelist in Speyer, Germany, which was renamed Saint Guido-Stift. He is the patron of Speyer (Attwater2, Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Husenbeth, Walsh).


St. Guy, Confessor


HE is called by the Germans Witen, and was forty years abbot of Pomposa, in the duchy of Ferrara, in Italy, a man eminent in all virtues, especially patience, the love of solitude, and prayer. He died in 1046. The emperor, Henry III., caused his relics to be translated to Spire, which city honours him as its principal patron. See his life by a disciple, in the Acta Sanatorium of Henschenius, and another shorter, of the same age.

Rev. Alban Butler (1711–73).  Volume III: March. The Lives of the Saints.  1866.

Saint Guy of Pomposa

Also known as
  • Guido
  • Guion
  • Wido
  • Wit
  • Witen
Profile

Known in his youth for being meticulous about his clothing and appearance – until the day he realized it was simply vanity and traded his fine clothes for a beggar‘s rags. Pilgrim to Rome, Italy. Spiritual student for three years of a hermit name Martin on an island in the River Po. Monk at Pomposa abbey near Ferrera, Italy. Benedictine monk at Saint Severus abbey, Ravenna, Italy. Abbot at Ravenna. Abbot at Pomposa. A student of scripture, at the request of Saint Peter Damian he taught Bible studies for two years. So many were attracted to his teaching, his leadership, and his example of the Christian life that his house doubled in size; his father and brother joined the order. Guy finally handed off the administrative elements of his position to concentrate on spiritual direction. He periodically retreated to a hermitage near Ferrara to spend his days in prayer and fasting. Near the end of his life he was unjustly persecuted for personal reasons by archbishop Heribert of Ravenna. Died while on a trip to Piacenza, Italy to advise Emperor Henry III on spiritual matters.

Born


St. Guy of Pomposa

When he was a young man Guy of Pomposa had a very high opinion of himself and always dressed very well. During a celebration of the feast of St Apollinaris in Italy, he realized that he should change his attitude toward himself in order to improve his life spiritually. He gave his fine clothing to the poor and began to wear the clothes of a poor man. He then spent three years with a hermit, and he became a member and later abbot of a monastery that was under the direction of the hermit. He spent many hours a day praying and fasting, and his life became such an inspiring example that many men joined the monastery. His guidance was sought by many important people over the years. We honor him on March 31. - 




Voir aussi : http://christdesert.org/cgi-bin/martyrology.dynamic.5.cgi?name=guy_of_pomposa

lundi 30 mars 2015

Bienheureux JOACHIM de FLORE, abbé cistercien


Bienheureux Joachim de Flore.

Né en Calabre, Joachim fut d'abord page à la cour de Roger de Sicile. Après un voyage en Terre Sainte, il se fit prédicateur ambulant. 


Il entra chez les Cisterciens de Sambucina, puis devint abbé de Corazzo en 1177. Il quitta sa charge et devint solitaire non loin de l'abbaye. 

En 1183, il s'installa à Flore avec quelques compagnons. La règle de vie qu'il rédigea était plus rigoureuse que celle des cisterciens, et en 1194 il se sépara pour créer un l'Ordre de Flore. Les Constitutions furent approuvées par le pape Célestin III en 1196. On estime qu'il initia ainsi le premier mouvement de réforme que connut l'Ordre Cistercien dans sa longue existence. 

Après sa mort en 1202, l'Ordre continua à prospérer et à fonder de nouvelles maisons, mais uniquement dans la péninsule italienne. Cette vitalité extraordinaire fit que l'ordre compta jusqu'à 40 maisons et quelques monastères féminins vers 1250. 

Malheureusement, suite à l'instabilité politique consécutive à la mort de Frédéric II en 1250, suite à l'apparition des ordres mendiants comme les Franciscains, suite à la commende qui fut introduite dans certains monastères... nombre de monastères vécurent une lente agonie avant leur extinction définitive. 

Les quelques communautés qui survécurent se rattachèrent à l'Ordre de Cîteaux en 1570, avec l'approbation du pape Saint Pie V. 

Seules Flore et Fonte Laureato subsistèrent à la fin du XVIIIème siècle. Elles disparurent à leur tour sous le régime napoléonien d'Italie (1806-1809).




Joachim naquit à Celico, en Calabre, vers 1130. À 30 ans environ, il quitta sa profession pour se rendre en Terre Sainte, où il se mit à approfondir ce goût des Écritures qu’il n’abandonna plus jamais. De retour dans sa patrie, après un temps passé en ermitage, il entra chez les cisterciens de Corazzo, où il devint abbé en 1177. Mais bien vite, Joachim se convainquit du fait que le monachisme traditionnel n’était plus en mesure de faire face à la crise que traversait alors la société civile autant que le monde ecclésiastique. C’est la raison qui le poussa à créer, avec quelques compagnons et la protection des empereurs normands de Sicile, un Ordre nouveau, dépendant du monastère de San Giovanni in Fiore. Attaqué par les cisterciens, qui se sentaient trahis par leur abbé calabrais, mais défendu par des papes et des empereurs, Joachim mourut dans l’ermitage où il avait décidé de vivre ses derniers jours : il laissait un trésor inestimable et particulièrement original de commentaires bibliques. Témoin d’une radicale pauvreté évangélique, prédicateur d’une Église humble et « servante du Seigneur » au milieu de la violence des Croisades, Joachim entra dans l’histoire pour sa théologie animée d’un grand souffle trinitaire, et surtout pour ses prophéties sur l’imminence de « l’époque de l’Esprit », qui inspireront bien des mouvements de réforme religieuse au XIII è siècle.

Les Temps de l'Histoire, Liber Figurarum


Bienheureux Joachim de Flore Abbé (env.1130-1202)

Le 30 mars 1202 meurt dans l’ermitage calabrais de Saint Martin à Pietrafitta Joachim de Flore, moine cistercien, puis fondateur d’un Ordre qui porta son nom.

Joachim naquit à Celico, en Calabre, vers 1130. À 30 ans environ, il quitta sa profession pour se rendre en Terre Sainte, où il se mit à approfondir ce goût des Écritures qu’il n’abandonna plus jamais.
De retour dans sa patrie, après un temps passé en ermitage, il entra chez les cisterciens de Corazzo, où il devint abbé en 1177. Mais bien vite, Joachim se convainquit du fait que le monachisme traditionnel n’était plus en mesure de faire face à la crise que traversait alors la société civile autant que le monde ecclésiastique. C’est la raison qui le poussa à créer, avec quelques compagnons et la protection des empereurs normands de Sicile, un Ordre nouveau, dépendant du monastère de San Giovanni in Fiore. Attaqué par les cisterciens, qui se sentaient trahis par leur abbé calabrais, mais défendu par des papes et des empereurs, Joachim mourut dans l’ermitage où il avait décidé de vivre ses derniers jours : il laissait un trésor inestimable et particulièrement original de commentaires bibliques.

Témoin d’une radicale pauvreté évangélique, prédicateur d’une Église humble et « servante du Seigneur » au milieu de la violence des Croisades, Joachim entra dans l’histoire pour sa théologie animée d’un grand souffle trinitaire, et surtout pour ses prophéties sur l’imminence de « l’époque de l’Esprit », qui inspireront bien des mouvements de réforme religieuse au XIII è siècle. 

Lecture

Mais nous qui sommes les derniers quant aux mérites et dans le temps, que pouvons-nous offrir de plus quand la grande abondance des dons de celui qui nous a précédés est déjà anticipée ? Rien à dire à cet égard, aucun besoin ne nous menace ; il reste, toutefois, une sorte de poids que nous aussi, les derniers, nous avons à porter. Il nous revient la charge d’exhorter l’Église à l’écoute ; de l’exhorter à ouvrir les yeux ; de l’exhorter à faire retour sur elle-même, pour chercher l’unité puisque, absorbée par de multiples distractions, elle a perdu de son élan. Il faut l’exhorter, dis-je, à faire retour sur soi, à être vigilante et à demeurer en son sein, pour qu’elle tourne son oreille vers les épithalames.
Car il est proche le temps des noces : qu’elle oublie son peuple et la maison de son père ! Ses lampes allumées, qu’elle ouvre la cérémonie nuptiale ! 

(Joachim de Flore, Prologue du Manuel sur l’Apocalypse)

SOURCE : http://jubilatedeo.centerblog.net/6573255-Les-saints-du-jour-29-Mai
L'Arbre de l'Humanité, Liber Figurarum

L'Ordre du Troisième Âge, Liber Figurarum

Deux erreurs de Joachim de Flore (†1202)

Première erreur : l'idée d'un rythme trinitaire de l'histoire. Cette erreur a été corrigée par saint Bonaventure (†1274).
« A l'époque de saint Bonaventure, un courant de Frères mineurs, dits "spirituels", soutenait qu'avec saint François avait été inaugurée une phase entièrement nouvelle de l'histoire, et que serait apparu l'"Evangile éternel", dont parle l'Apocalypse, qui remplaçait le Nouveau Testament. [...]

A la base des idées de ce groupe, il y avait les écrits d'un abbé cistercien, Joachim de Flore, mort en 1202. Dans ses œuvres, il affirmait l'existence d'un rythme trinitaire de l'histoire. Il considérait l'Ancien Testament comme l'ère du Père, suivie par le temps du Fils et le temps de l'Eglise. Il fallait encore attendre la troisième ère, celle de l'Esprit Saint. [...] Joachim de Flore avait suscité l'espérance que le début du temps nouveau aurait dérivé d'un nouveau monachisme.

Il est donc compréhensible qu'un groupe de franciscains pensait reconnaître chez saint François d'Assise l'initiateur du temps nouveau et dans son Ordre la communauté de la période nouvelle - la communauté du temps de l'Esprit Saint, qui laissait derrière elle l'Eglise hiérarchique, pour commencer la nouvelle Eglise de l'Esprit, qui n'était plus liée aux anciennes structures.

Il existait donc le risque d'un très grave malentendu sur le message de saint François, de son humble fidélité à l'Evangile et à l'Eglise, et cette équivoque comportait une vision erronée du christianisme dans son ensemble.
Saint Bonaventure, qui, en 1257, devint ministre général de l'Ordre franciscain, se trouva face à une grave tension au sein de son Ordre même, précisément en raison de ceux qui soutenaient le courant mentionné des "Franciscains spirituels", qui se référait à Joachim de Flore. [...]

Saint Bonaventure repousse l'idée du rythme trinitaire de l'histoire. Dieu est un pour toute l'histoire et il ne se divise pas en trois divinités. En conséquence, l'histoire est une, même si elle est un chemin et - selon saint Bonaventure - un chemin de progrès.

Jésus Christ est la dernière parole de Dieu - en Lui Dieu a tout dit, se donnant et se disant lui-même. Plus que lui-même, Dieu ne peut pas dire, ni donner. L'Esprit Saint est l'Esprit du Père et du Fils. Le Seigneur dit de l'Esprit Saint:  "...il vous fera souvenir de tout ce que je vous ai dit" (Jn 14, 26); "il reprend ce qui vient de moi pour vous le faire connaître" (Jn 16, 15). Il n'y a donc pas un autre Evangile, il n'y a pas une autre Eglise à attendre. L'Ordre de saint François doit donc lui aussi s'insérer dans cette Eglise, dans sa foi, dans son organisation hiérarchique.

Cela ne signifie pas que l'Eglise soit immobile, fixée dans le passé et qu'il ne puisse pas y avoir de nouveauté dans celle-ci. "Opera Christi non deficiunt, sed proficiunt", les œuvres du Christ ne reculent pas, ne disparaissent pas, mais elles progressent", dit le saint dans la lettre De tribus quaestionibus. »[1]

Deuxième erreur : l'usage de ce qui est commun aux trois personnes divines (par exemple l'essence) pour désigner en particulier une de ces personnes. Cette erreur a été corrigée par saint Thomas d'Aquin (†1274).

« L'abbé Joachim est tombé dans l'erreur; il affirmait que, si l'on dit: "Dieu engendre Dieu", on peut tout aussi bien dire "L'Essence engendre l'essence". Il considérait, en effet, qu'en raison de la simplicité divine, Dieu n'est pas autre chose que l'essence divine. En cela, il s'abusait [...] Ce qui est propre aux personnes peut ainsi s'attribuer au sujet "Dieu", et l'on peut dire: "Dieu est engendré ou engendre", comme on l'a vu précédemment. Mais le terme d'essence ne possède pas, par son mode de signifier, d'aptitude à désigner la personne, car il signifie l'essence comme une forme abstraite. »[2]

« Pour exprimer l'unité entre l'essence et la personne, les saints Docteurs ont parfois forcé leurs expressions au-delà des limites requises pour la propriété du langage. De pareilles formules ne sont pas à généraliser, mais plutôt à expliquer; c'est-à-dire qu'on expliquera les termes abstraits par des termes concrets, ou même par des noms personnels.»[3]


[1] Benoit XVI, audience du 10 mars 2010

[2] Saint Thomas d'Aquin, Somme Théologique, I Qu.39 a.5, r

[3] Saint Thomas d'Aquin, Somme Théologique, I Qu.39 a.5, s1

Extraits présentés par F. Breynaert




Joachim of Flora

Cistercian abbot and mystic; b. at Celico, near CosenzaItaly, c. 1132; d. at San Giovanni in Fiore, in Calabria, 30 March, 1202.

His father, Maurus de Celico (whose family name is said to have been Tabellione), a notary holding high office under the Norman kings of Sicily, placed him at an early age in the royal Court. While on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Joachim was converted from the world by the sight of some great calamity (perhaps an outbreak of pestilence). He passed the whole of Lent in contemplation on Mount Thabor, where he is said to have received celestial illumination for the work of his life. Returning to Italy, he retired to the Cistercian Abbey of Sambucina, probably in 1159, and for some years devoted himself to lay preaching, without taking the religious habit or receiving any orders. The ecclesiastical authorities raising objections to his mode of life, he took the Cistercian habit in the Abbey of Corazzo, and was ordained priest, apparently in 1168. He now applied himself entirely to Biblical study, with a special view to the interpretation of the hidden meaning of the Scriptures. A few years later, much against his will, he was elected abbot. Finding the duties of his office an intolerable hindrance to what he deemed his higher calling, he appealed, in 1182, to Pope Lucius III, who relieved him of the temporal care of his abbey, and warmly approved of his work, bidding him continue it in whatever monastery he thought best. He spent the following year and a half at the Abbey of Casamari, engaged upon his three great books, and there a young monk, Lucas (afterwards Archbishop of Cosenza), who acted as his secretary, tells us of his amazement at seeing so famous and eloquent a man wearing such rags, and of the wonderful devotion with which he preached and said Mass.

The papal approbation was confirmed by Urban III, in 1185, and again, more conditionally, by Clement III, in 1187, the latter exhorting him to make no delay in completing his work and submitting it to the judgment of the Holy See. Joachim now retired to the hermitage of Pietralata, and finally founded the Abbey of Fiore (or Flora) among the Calabrian mountains, which became the center of a new and stricter branch of the Cistercian Order approved by Celestine III in 1198. In 1200 Joachim publicly submitted all his writings to the examination of Innocent III, but died before any judgment was passed. It was held to be in answer to his prayers that he died on Holy Saturday, "the Saturday on which Sitivit is sung, attaining the true Sabbath, even as the hart panteth after the fountains of waters." The holiness of his life is unquestionable; miracles were said to have been wrought at his tomb, and, though never officially beatified, he is still venerated as a beatus on 29 May.

Dante voiced the general opinion of his age in declaring Joachim one "endowed with prophetic spirit." But he himself always disclaimed the title of prophet. The interpretation of Scriptural prophecy, with reference to the history and the future of the Church, is the main theme of his three chief works: "Liber Concordiae Novi ac Veteris Testamenti," "Expositio in Apocalipsim," and "Psalterium Decem Cordarum." The mystical basis of his teaching is the doctrine of the "Eternal Gospel," founded on a strained interpretation of the text in the Apocalypse (14:6). There are three states of the world, corresponding to the three Persons of the Blessed Trinity. In the first age the Father ruled, representing power and inspiring fear, to which the Old Testament dispensation corresponds; then the wisdom hidden through the ages was revealed in the Son, and we have the Catholic Church of the New Testament; a third period will come, the Kingdom of the Holy Spirit, a new dispensation of universal love, which will proceed from the Gospel of Christ, but transcend the letter of it, and in which there will be no need for disciplinary institutions. Joachim held that the second period was drawing to a close, and that the third epoch (already in part anticipated by St. Benedict) would actually begin after some great cataclysm which he tentatively calculated would befall in 1260. After this Latins and Greeks would be united in the new spiritual kingdom, freed alike from the fetters of the letter; the Jews would be converted, and the "Eternal Gospel" abide until the end of the world.

Although certain doctrines of Joachim concerning the Blessed Trinity were condemned by the Lateran Council in 1215, his main teaching does not seem to have excited suspicion until the middle of the century. Many works had meanwhile come into being which were wrongly attributed to Joachim. Among these the "De Oneribus Prophetarum," the "Expositio Sybillae et Merlini," and the commentaries on Jeremias and Isaias are the most famous. The sect of the "Joachists" or "Joachimists" arose among the "spiritual" party among the Franciscans, many of whom saw Antichrist already in the world in the person of Frederick II, nor was their faith shaken by his death in 1250. One of their number, Fra Gherardo of Borgo San Donnino, wrote a treatise entitled "Introductorium in Evangelium Aeternum", of which the contents are now known only from the extracts made by the commission of three cardinals who examined it in 1255. From these it is clear that the Joachists went far beyond what the abbot himself had taught. They held that, about the year 1200, the spirit of life had gone out of the two Testaments and that Joachim's three books themselves constituted this "Eternal Gospel," which was not simply to transcend but to supersede, the Gospel of Christ. The Catholic priesthood and the whole teaching of the New Testament was to be rendered void in a few years.

This work was solemnly condemned by Alexander IV, in 1256, and the condemnation involved the teaching of Joachim himself. His central doctrine was confuted by St. Thomas in the Summa Theologica (I-II, Q. cvi, a. 4), and its Franciscan exponents were sternly repressed by St. Bonaventure. Another blow was given to the movement when the fatal year 1260 came, and nothing happened. "After Frederick II died who was Emperor," writes Fra Salimbene of Parma, "and the year 1260 passed, I entirely laid aside this doctrine, and I am disposed henceforth to believe nothing save what I see." It was revived in a modified form by the later leader of the spiritual Franciscans, Pier Giovanni Olivi (d. 1297), and his follower, Ubertino da Casale, who left the order in 1317. We hear a last echo of these theories in the letters of Blessed Giovanni dalle Celle and the prophecies of Telesphorus of Cosenza during the Great Schism, but they were no longer taken seriously.

Sources

Divini vatis Abbatis Joachim Liber Concordiae novi ac veteris Testatmenti (Venice, 1519); Expositio magni prophetae Abbatis Joachim in Apocalipsim: Eiusdem Psalterium Decem Cordarum opus prope divinum (Venice, 1527); REUTER, Geschichte der religiösen Aufklärung im Mittelalter, II (Berlin, 1877); TOCCO, L'Eresia nel Medio Evo (Florence, 1884); DENIFLE, Das Evangelium aeternum und die Commission zu Anagni in Archiv fur Litteratur- und Kirchen-Geschichte, I (Berlin, 1885): HOLDER-EGGER, Cronica Fratris Salimbene de Adam Ordinis Minorum (Hanover, 1905-08); WICKSTEED, The Everlasting Gospel in The Inquirer (London, 1909); FOURNIER, Études sur Joachim de Flore et ses doctrines (Paris, 1909). The only contemporary account is the sketch, Virtutum B. Joachimi synopsis, by LUCAS OF COSENZA, his secretary: but the fuller Vita by JACOBUS GRAECUS SYLLANAEUS, written in 1612, is professedly drawn from an ancient manuscript then preserved at Fiore. Both are printed by the Bollandists, Acta SS., May, VII.

Gardner, Edmund. "Joachim of Flora." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 30 Mar. 2015 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08406c.htm>.

Transcription. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Alison S. Britton. For the Triumph of the Immaculate Heart of Mary.


Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. October 1, 1910. Remy Lafort, S.T.D., Censor. Imprimatur. +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York.


Blessed Joachim of Fiore, OSB Cist. Abbot (PC)
(also known as Joachim de Floris)

Born at Celico, Calabria, Italy, c. 1130; died 1202. Joachim was a visionary and prophet who, early in life, adopted an ascetic life. After a pilgrimage to Palestine, he entered the Cistercian abbey at Sambucina. In 1176, he became abbot of Corazzo, and about 1190, founded his own monastery at Fiore--a new Cistercian Congregation. His life was marked with great piety and simplicity. He looked for a new age of the Spirit, when the papal Church would be superseded by a spiritual Church in which popes, priests, and ceremonies would disappear, and the Holy Spirit would fill the hearts of all Christ's followers.

Thus, his heart was Franciscan and, in a way, he anticipated the reforming zeal and simple faith of the Quakers. It is not surprising that doubts were sometimes thrown upon his orthodoxy and that many were disturbed by his original and even startling views.

Nevertheless, he opened the way for others to follow, and kindled a hope that ran through the medieval world and stirred the intellect of the Church. Reformation was in the air, and many things which he foresaw or foretold came to birth in the century that followed, in the great days of Dominic, Francis of Assisi, and Ignatius Loyola.

A new emphasis was placed on the work of the Holy Spirit, and after the gloom which preceded, there burst upon the world fresh and radiant visions of saintliness and virtue, and with them a new warmth and glow of religious life. A wave of exhilaration swept across Europe, and in that golden age of art and genius men looked beyond the outward forms and found in their own hearts a living and personal experience of God.

Joachim helped to give birth to this new mood of feeling and spontaneity, which later found song in such words as "O Jesus, King Most Wonderful" and "Jesu, the very thought of Thee." It was Pentecost set to music:

When once Thou visitest the heart,
Then truth begins to shine,
Then earthly vanities depart,
Then kindles love divine.
O Jesus, Light of all below!
Thou Fount of living fire,
Surpassing all the joys we know,
And all we can desire.

With this inner fire went a consuming love that burned in the heart of Saint Francis and his friars, that sent Dominic and his preachers out of their churches into the hills and highways, and that in a thousand monasteries set up Christian communities to care for the welfare of the people.

He was a prolific ascetical writer. His commentary on the Book of Revelation gave his the title "the Prophet" by which he was described by Dante: "the Calabrian abbot Joachim, endowed with prophetic spirit" (Paradiso, XII). Thus Joachim was among the enthusiasts, who turned for inspiration to the Bible. Unfortunately, after his death the Franciscan Spirituals used his books to uphold their heretical tendencies. Nevertheless, Joachim has always been given the title of beatus, because, as a mystic and a prophet, he refreshed the life of the Church (Benedictines, Encyclopedia, Gill).

Pierre DEGHAYE. «Henri de Lubac et Joachim de Flore » :
http://www.esswe.org/uploads/user-files/A03-03-Deghayte-Henri-de-Lubac-et-Joachim-de-Flore.pdf

Barbara OBRIST. » Image et prophétie au XIIe siècle : Hugues de Saint-Victor et Joachim de Flore  », Mélanges de l'Ecole française de Rome. Moyen-Age, Temps modernes Année 1986 Volume 98 Numéro 1 pp. 35-63 : http://www.persee.fr/doc/mefr_0223-5110_1986_num_98_1_2850

Voir aussi : http://www.revistamirabilia.com/sites/default/files/pdfs/2012_01_03.pdf

http://www.liv.ac.uk/~spmr02/rings/trinity.html

http://www.centrostudigioachimiti.it/Gioacchino/GF_luoghieng.asp