lundi 9 avril 2012

Sainte MARIE CLÉOPHAS (MARIE d'ALPHÉE), disciple


Vitrail, Grace Church - New York - NY - USA

Sainte Marie Cléophas

Sœur de la Vierge Marie et mère de Saint-Jacques le Mineur. Elle aurait assisté à la crucifixion et aurait été présente sur la tombe du Christ au matin de Pâques (Ier siècle) Selon une légende, elle se serait rendue en France, où elle serait morte à Ciudad Rodrigo ; selon une autre, elle aurait accompagné Lazare, Marie-Madeleine et Marthe en Provence. Aucune de ces deux légendes n'est malheureusement digne de foi.

On lit au début du Martyrologe Romain de ce jour :

En Judée, sainte Marie, femme de Cléophas, que le bienheureux Évangéliste Jean appelle la sœur [cousine] de la très Sainte Vierge Marie, Mère de Dieu, et qui, d’après son récit, se tint à ses côtés au pied de la Croix de Jésus.

À Jérusalem, commémoraison des saintes femmes Marie de Cléophas et Salomé, qui, avec Marie-Madeleine, vinrent de grand matin au tombeau du Seigneur, pour embaumer son corps, et entendirent les premières l’annonce de sa résurrection.(martyrologe romain - 24 avril)

Marie, femme de Cléophas (ou Clophas), proche parente de la Vierge Marie, près de laquelle elle se trouvait au pied de la Croix de Jésus. Elle est témoin de la Résurrection. Elle serait la mère de l’apôtre Saint Jude et des deux premiers évêques de Jérusalem : l’apôtre Saint Jacques le Mineur et Saint Siméon martyr.

Elle accompagna le Christ jusqu'au calvaire, se rendit au tombeau le matin de Pâques, puis revint annoncer aux apôtres incrédules la Résurrection du Seigneur. "...près de la croix de Jésus se tenait sa mère, avec la soeur de sa mère, Marie femme de Cléophas, et Marie Madeleine." (Jean 19, 25)

Dans l'église Notre Dame la Grande de Poitiers, on peut admirer le groupe en bois polychrome, adossé au premier pilier du collatéral nord, dit la Sainte Parenté (XVIème siècle), sainte Anne, la Vierge, Marie Cléophas, Marie Salomé, l’Enfant Jésus, les fils des deux Marie Cleophas et Salomé.(source: diocèse de Poitiers)





Marie de Cléophas
1er siècle
 
Il n’est pas facile de situer les rapports familiaux de ces saintes femmes dont parle l’Évangile.
Quand il est question de Marie de Cléophas (Clopas), on peut aussi bien interpréter l’expression comme «fille de» ou «femme de» Cléophas.
Il n’est pas interdit, quoique avec toutes les réserves qu’impose une révélation privée, de lire ce que disent à ce propos soit la bienheureuse Anna Katharina Emmerick, soit Maria Valtorta. Toutefois, on ne prendra pas rigoureusement à la lettre ce qu’elles auront essayé de transcrire de leurs visions, puisque la faiblesse humaine est toujours là pour conduire à l’erreur les meilleures intentions.
Concernant Marie de Cléophas, il semblerait donc que cette femme fût la fille de Cléophas, lui-même neveu de saint Joseph. (1) Or, cette Marie épousa Alphée, dont elle eut les trois futurs apôtres Jude Thaddée, Simon le Zélote et Jacques le Mineur. Cette Marie (fille) de Cléophas est donc la même que Marie (femme) d’Alphée.
Veuve une première fois, Marie épousa ensuite Saba ; veuve une troisième fois, elle épousa Jonas. De Saba, elle eut José (Joseph) et Barsabas ; de Jonas, elle eut Siméon le Juste. Ce dernier est donné dans l’évangile comme fils de Marie (cf. Mt 13:55) ; Il succéda à saint Jacques le Majeur comme évêque à Jérusalem et fut martyrisé à cent-vingt ans, vers 104. Cette situation familiale explique que l’on parle des «frères de Jésus» dans le passage cité. 
Que sait-on de Marie de Cléophas, d’après l’Évangile ? Elle n’est pas toujours nommée explicitement parmi les «saintes femmes», mais on la trouve au pied de la croix, auprès de la mère de Jésus. Elle reste là après la mort du Sauveur, elle assiste à la sépulture. Le lendemain du sabbat, elle est de celles qui se rendent au sépulcre et voient le Christ ressuscité (Mt 27:61 et 28:9).
La Tradition (Anna Katharina Emmerick en parle aussi) rapporte que Marie de Cléophas aurait été abandonnée sur une barque sans voile, avec Lazare et Madeleine, et aurait accosté miraculeusement sur la côte de Provence, où elle serait morte. 
Quant à Salomé, c’était une cousine de Marie, la mère de Jésus. Ayant épousé Zébédée, elle était la mère des futurs apôtres Jacques (le Majeur) et Jean. On la rencontre dans l’évangile de Matthieu (20:10) et de Marc (15:40 ; 16:1). En Matthieu, elle demande à Jésus une faveur un peu présomptueuse pour ses garçons, en Marc on la voit aux côté de Marie de Cléophas, au Calvaire et au Sépulcre.
L’actuel Martyrologe mentionne ensemble au 24 avril ces deux femmes, si proches de Jésus, les premières auxquelles se présenta le Ressuscité.

1 Ce Cléophas serait lui-même l’oncle d’un autre Cléophas, l’un des deux pèlerins d’Emmaüs (cf. Lc 24:18)

SOURCE : http://www.samuelephrem.eu/page/385

Occurrences néotestamentaires

• Mt 27,56 : « Parmi (les femmes) qui étaient au pied de la croix, il y avait Marie de Magdala, Marie, mère de Jacques et de Joseph, et la mère des fils de Zébédée. »

• Mt 28,1 : « … Marie de Magdala et l’autre Marie vinrent visiter le sépulcre.»

• Mc 15,40 : « Il y avait aussi des femmes qui regardaient à distance, parmi elles Marie de Magdala, et Marie, mère de Jacques le petit et de Joset, et Salomé… »

• Mc 15,47 : « Or Marie de Magdala, et Marie, mère de Joset regardaient où on l’avait mis.»

• Mc 16,1 : « Lorsque le sabbat fut passé, Marie de Magdala, Marie, mère de Jacques, et Salomé, achetèrent des aromates, afin d'aller embaumer Jésus. »

• Jn 19,25 : « Près de la croix se tenaient sa mère, la sœur de sa mère, Marie, femme de Clopas, et Marie de Magdala. »

• Lc 24,10 : « Celles qui dirent ces choses aux apôtres étaient Marie de Magdala, Jeanne, Marie, mère de Jacques, et les autres qui étaient avec elles. »

SOURCE : http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Jacob%C3%A9


Sainte Anne et les trois Marie Heures d'Étienne Chevalier, enluminées par Jean Fouquet. Paris, BnF, département des Manuscrits, NAL 1416. D'après la Légende dorée, sainte Anne eut trois époux, Joachim, Cléophas et Salomé, avec lesquels elle eut respectivement la Vierge, Marie, épouse d'Alphée, et Marie, épouse de Zébédée. À l'angle d'un jardin urbain, devant un treillis garni de rosiers, sainte Anne se tient parmi ses trois filles accompagnées de leurs enfants. La Vierge, portant Jésus dans ses bras, se détache sur la perspective verdoyante d'une tonnelle, où saint Joseph apparaît au fond à gauche.

Very little is known about St. Mary Cleophas. She was one of the “three Marys” who followed Our Lord and stood at the foot of the Cross on Calvary and who went to the tomb. She was the wife of Saint Cleophas, the brother of Saint Joseph, and the mother of Saint James the Less.

According to legend, Saint Mary of Cleophas was put on a boat with others by the Jews in the year 47, and pushed out to sea without sails or oars. She died in France. 

The island in France where she landed, after her miraculous journey from Jerusalem, is called les Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer (”the Holy Marys of the Sea”), named for Saint Mary of Cleophas, Saint Mary Magdalen and Saint Mary Salome.

SOURCE : http://www.ucatholic.com/saints/saint-mary-cleophas/


Mary of Cleophas, Matron (RM)
(also known as Mary of Alpheus or Clopas)


1st century. Mary of Cleophas, the 'other Mary,' followed our Lord to Calvary (Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40; John 19:25) and saw Him after His Resurrection (Mark 16:1; Luke 24:10). She was the mother of James the Younger, Joseph (Matt. 27:56; Mark 15:40), Simon, and Jude; wife of Cleophas (John 19:25); and sister of the Blessed Virgin (John 19:25). Later legend says that Mary went to Spain, where she died at Ciudad Rodrigo. Another legend had her accompanying Lazarus, Mary Magdalene, and Martha to Provence. Both these stories are unreliable (Benedictines, Delaney, Encyclopedia, Gill).


Mary Cleophas is normally portrayed with all four of her children. Occasionally the sons carry the following emblems: Jude, a boat; Simeon, a fish; James, a palm branch or a mill (probably a fuller's mill); and Joseph Barsabas, three leaves or a cup. Mary Cleophas may also be portrayed with Mary Salome who together support the Virgin during the Crucifixion or are present with Mary Magdalene at the Resurrection (Roeder).


SOURCE : http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/0409.shtml


Mary of Cleophas

This title occurs only in John 19:25. A comparison of the lists of those who stood at the foot of the crosswould seem to identify her with Mary, the mother of James the Less and Joseph (Mark 15:40; cf. Matthew 27:56). Some have indeed tried to identify her with the Salome of Mark 15:40, but St. John's reticence concerning himself and his relatives seems conclusive against this (cf. John 21:2). In the narratives of the Resurrection she is named "Mary of James"; (Mark 16:1; Luke 24:10) and "the other Mary" (Matthew 27:61; 28:1). The title of "Mary of James" is obscure. If it stood alone, we should feel inclined to render it "wife of (or sister of) James", but the recurrence of the expression "Mary the mother of James andJoseph" compels us to render it in the same way when we only read "Mary of James". Her relationship to the Blessed Virgin is obscure. James is termed "of Alpheus", i.e. presumably "son of Alpheus". St. Jeromewould identify this Alpheus with Cleophas who, according to Hegesippus, was brother to St. Joseph (Hist. eccl., III, xi). In this case Mary of Cleophas, or Alpheus, would be the sister-in-law of the Blessed Virgin, and the term "sister", adelphe, in John 19:25, would cover this. But there are grave difficulties in the way of this identification of Alpheus and Cleophas. In the first place, St. Luke, who speaks of Cleophas(24:18), also speaks of Alpheus (6:15; Acts 1:13). We may question whether he would have been guilty of such a confused use of names, had they both referred to the same person. Again, while Alphas is the equivalent of the Aramaic, it is not easy to see how the Greek form of this became Cleophas, or more correctly Clopas. More probably it is a shortened form of Cleopatros.

Pope, Hugh. "Mary of Cleophas." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 20 Apr. 2015 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09748b.htm>.

Transcription. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Joseph P. Thomas. Dedicated to Mary Thomas.


Ecclesiastical approbation. Nihil Obstat. October 1, 1910. Remy Lafort, Censor. Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York.



MARY OF CLEOPHAS

Christopher Y Wong
"And there were standing by the cross of Jesus His mother and His mother's sister, Mary of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalen." How should we understand "His mother's sister," literally, as in having the same parents, or in the same sense that Jesus's "brothers" are to be understood as close relatives?

The short answer is that Mary of Cleophas is probably the Blessed Virgin's sister-in-law. Mary of Cleophas may have had a previous husband named Alpheus, or this Alpheus may have been Cleophas. The Blessed Virgin Mary, of course, only had one husband (Joseph) and remained a virgin. The long answer follows.

Jesus' relatives

Reading the Bible, we find that Jesus had brethren named James, Joseph, Simon (Simeon) and Jude (Mt 13:55). We also know that His mother Mary had a "sister" called Mary. This other Mary in turn had a husband named Cleophas (Jn 19:25). I hope here to summarize and untangle this maze of relatives. I do not seek to prove the Blessed Virgin Mary's perpetual virginity here; there are many other sources for that purpose that I will list below.

First, let us see what the Gospels tell us. At the death of Jesus, we are told that Mary wife of Cleophas/Clopas (Jn 19:25) was present. She was described as the mother of James and Joseph (Mt 27:56) in one account, and mother of James the Less and Joses in another (Mk 15:40). On the other hand, James is described as the son of Alphaeus in the synoptic Gospels' listing of the Apostles (Mt 10:3, Mk 3:18, Lk 6:15). We can infer that Mary wife of Cleophas is unlikely to be a true sister of the Virgin Mary, since they bear the same name. However, they are related in some way. This parallels the semitic use of "brother" in relating James to Jesus.

An ancient historian named Hegesippus can shed further light. A native of Palestine, Hegesippus finished his Memoirs in the reign of Pope Eleutherius (AD 175-189) when he was an old man. He draws his information from personal sources, as he was able to question some surviving members of Jesus' family. Hegesippus can tell us that:

"After the martyrdom of James, it was unanimously decided that Simeon, son of Clopas, was worthy to occupy the see of Jerusalem. He was, it is said, a cousin of the Saviour;" Hegesippus recounts in fact that Clopas was a brother of Joseph (Eusebius, Hist. eccl., III, 11).

St. Epiphanius (Haer., LXXVII, 7) says the same and adds (ibid., 14) "that this Simeon, the son of Clopas, was a cousin of James the Just," as Hegesippus says in another passage. (Prat, Jesus Christ, p. 505).

Cleophas is the brother of Joseph (Jesus' adopted father). It follows that Cleophas' wife Mary is the Virgin Mary's sister in law, which explains why they can have the same name and are called sisters. It also follows that James is Jesus' cousin. Ferdinand Prat reasons:

"We know, then that the mother of two of the brothers of the Lord was Mary of Cleophas, the sister of the Blessed Virgin. We also know that Cleophas, St Joseph's brother, was the father of a third, called Simon or Simeon. Since the remaining one, Jude, is always connected with Simon and is, like him, part of the family of David, it is natural to suppose that he was also a son of Cleophas.

All the points that remain obscure would be cleared up, in our opinion, if two hypotheses are risked. Mary, the sister of the Blessed Virgin, having two sons, James and Joseph, by a first marriage, was married a second time to Cleophas, brother of St. Joseph, who also had two sons, Simon and Jude, by a former marriage. In light of the customs of the country and the age, there was nothing extraordinary in the marriage of a widow and a widower, each with children. The second hypothesis is that the sister of the Blessed Virgin had as her first husband a man of the tribe of Levi, called Alpheus.

In this fashion nine or ten problems would be solved. Thus one could explain why James, Joseph, Simon and Jude are always named in that order, as brethren of the Lord; why James and Joseph are a pair distinct from Simon and Jude; why Mary, sister of the Blessed Virgin, is called the mother of James and Joseph and not the mother of Simon and Jude; why, according to Hegesippus, Simon and not James is the son of Cleophas; why, again according to Hegesippus, Simon and Jude are of the family of David; why, according to tradition, James was of sacerdotal ancestry; why the common opinion of Catholics identifies James, son of Mary, sister of the Blessed Virgin, with James the Apostle, the son of Alpheus; why Mary of Cleophas is called in the Gospel sister of the Blessed Virgin, when she was really her sister-in-law, being the wife of St. Joseph's brother; finally, why, after the deaths of Joseph and Cleophas, the two sisters brought their families together, so that thereafter the two families seemed to be but one." (Prat, Jesus Christ, p. 136-137).

We do not hear of Cleophas or Joseph (Jesus' adopted father) in the Gospels during Jesus' adult life. We can imagine that after their deaths, the two families—deprived of their protectors and heads—came together under one roof. This would further strengthen their ties: the two Marys as "sisters" and Jesus and His cousins as "brothers". Gospel and tradition kept these names without denying Mary's perpetual virginity.

Further reading and bibliography

Rereading my writing above, I fear I may have omitted too much material. I do not pretend that any of the above is my original work; the original sources should be consulted for the full picture. I will mention some further reading.

Prat, Ferdinand. Jesus Christ: His Life, His Teaching, and His Work, 2 vols. (Milwaukee, 1950). An orthodox Catholic work, this is my primary historical source. A strong defense of the Catholic position, and a fascinating work, it is described by Carroll as "thorough and profound".

Carroll, Warren H. The Founding of Christendom (Christendom Press, 1985). The first of a projected 7 volumes (3 completed), this book's detailed end-notes and annotated bibliography led me to Prat. Vivid and readable, this is the only attempt this century at a history of Christianity from an orthodox Catholic viewpoint that I know of. Warren Carroll is an expert on the Ask Experts forum.

St. Jerome. Against Heldivius. Where better to get a scriptural defense of Mary's perpetual virginity than the greatest Bible scholar of his day? The standard Protestant objections of today were handily refuted in AD 383, such that this heresy did not resurface again until relatively modern times. James Akin has an electronic copy at http://www.primenet.com/~jakin.

Fr Most, William G. "Brothers and Sisters of Jesus". This short article defends Mary's perpetual virginity, with some attention to linguistic issues. Available as jesbrs.txt on ewtn.com. Fr Most is an expert on the Ask Experts forum.
Provided Courtesy of: Eternal Word Television Network. 5817 Old Leeds Road. Irondale, AL 35210